18th May KBC 10th Question Answer is here


/ by Bodopress

Answer: D. Twenty-Sixth Day of November 1949

The preamble to the Constitution of India is a brief introductory statement that sets out guidelines, which guide the people of the nation, and to present the principles of the Constitution, and to indicate the source from which the document derives its authority, and meaning[1] The hopes and aspirations of the people are described in it. The preamble can be referred to as the preface which highlights the entire Constitution. It was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly and came into effect on 26 January 1950, celebrated as the Republic day in India.

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all FRATERNITY
assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;

Sovereign means the independent authority of a State. It means that it has the power to legislate on any subject; and that it is not subject to the control of any other State / external power.

According to the preamble, the constitution of India has been pursuance of the solemn resolution of the people of India to constitute India into a ‘Sovereign Democratic Republic’, and to secure well-defined objects set forth in the preamble. Sovereignty denotes supreme and ultimate power. It may be real or normal, legal or political, individual or pluralistic. In monarchies, sovereignty was vested in the person of monarchs. But in a republican form of governments, which mostly prevail in the contemporary world, sovereignty is shifted to the elected representatives of the people. According to D.D Basu, the word ‘sovereign’ is taken from article 5 of the constitution of Ireland. ‘Sovereign or supreme power is that which is absolute and uncontrolled within its own sphere’. In the words of Cooley, "A state is sovereign when there resides within itself supreme and absolute power, acknowledging no superior".

Sovereignty, in short, means the independent authority of a state. It has two aspects- external and internal. External sovereignty or sovereignty in international law means the independence of a state of the will of other states, in her conduct with other states in the committee of nations. Sovereign in its relation between states and among states signifies independence. The external sovereignty of India means that it can acquire foreign territory and also cede any part of the Indian territory, subject to limitations (if any) imposed by the constitution. On the other hand, internal sovereignty refers to the relationship between the states and the individuals within its territory.

Internal sovereignty relates to internal and domestic affairs and is divided into four organs, namely, the executive, the legislature, the judiciary and the administrative. Though India became a sovereign country on 26 January 1950, having equal status with the other members of the international community, she decided to remain in the Commonwealth of Nations. Pandit Nehru declared that India will continue – "her full membership of the Commonwealth games of Nations and her acceptance of the King as the symbol of the free association of the independent nations and as such the Head of the Commonwealth". Her membership of the Commonwealth of Nations and that of the United Nations Organization do not affect her sovereignty to any extent. It is a mere voluntary association of India and it is open to India to cut off this association at her will, and that it has no constitutional significance.

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